Database Management Systems

Course Code: BIT304 Course Title: Database Management System (DBMS) (4 Credits)






Unit 1: Database Management System Concepts:  Introduction, Significance of Database, Database System Applications; Data Independence; Data Modeling for a Database; Entities and their Attributes, Entities, Attributes, Relationships and Relationships Types, Advantages and Disadvantages of Database Management System, DBMS Vs RDBMS.


Unit 2: Database System Architecture: Three Level Architecture of DBMS, The External Level or Subschema, The Conceptual Level or Conceptual Schema, The Internal Level or Physical Schema, Mapping; MySQL Architecture; SQL Server 2000 Architecture; Oracle Architecture; Database Management System Facilities, Data Definition Language, Data Manipulation Language; Database Management System Structure, Database Manager, Database Administrator, Data Dictionary; Distributed Processing, Information and Communications Technology System (ICT), Client / Server Architecture


Unit 3: Database Models and Implementation: Data Model and Types of Data Model, Relational Data Model, Hierarchical Model, Network Data Model, Object/Relational Model, Object-Oriented Model; Entity-Relationship Model, Modeling using E-R Diagrams, Notation used in E-R Model, Relationships and Relationship Types; Associative Database Model


Unit 4: File Organization for Conventional DBMS: Storage Devices and its Characteristics, Magnetic Disks, Physical Characteristics of Disks, Performance Measures of Disks, Optimization of Disk-Block Access; File Organization, Fixed-Length Records, Variable-Length Records, Organization of records in files; Sequential file Organization; Indexed Sequential Access Method (ISAM); Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM)


Unit 5: An Introduction to RDBMS: An informal look at the relational model; Relational Database Management System; RDBMS Properties, The Entity-Relationship Model; Overview of Relational Query Optimization; System Catalog in a Relational DBMS, Information Stored in the System Catalog, How Catalogs are Stored


Unit 6: SQL – 1 : Categories of SQL Commands; Data Definition; Data Manipulation Statements, SELECT - The Basic Form, Subqueries, Functions, GROUP BY Feature, Updating the Database, Data Definition Facilities


Unit 7: SQL – 2: Views; Embedded SQL *, Declaring Variables and Exceptions, Embedding SQL Statements; Transaction Processing, Consistency and Isolation, Atomicity and Durability


Unit 8: Relational Algebra: Basic Operations, Union (U), Difference (-), Intersection, Cartesian product (x); Additional Relational Algebraic Operations, Projection, Selection, JOIN, Division


Unit 9: Relational Calculus: Tuple Relational Calculus, Semantics of TRC Queries, Examples of TRC Queries; Domain Relational Calculus; Relational ALGEBRA vs Relational CALCULUS


Unit 10: Normalization: Functional Dependency; Anomalies in a Database; Properties of Normalized Relations; First Normalization; Second Normal Form Relation; Third Normal Form; Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BNCF); Fourth and Fifth Normal Form


Unit 11: Query Processing and Optimization: Query Interpretation; Equivalence of Expressions; Algorithm for Executing Query Operations, External sorting, Select operation, Join operation, PROJECT and set operation, Aggregate operations, Outer join, Heuristics in Query Optimization, Semantic Query Optimization, Converting Query Tree to Query Evaluation Plan, Cost Estimates in Query Optimization , Measure of query cost, Catalog information for cost estimation of queries, Join Strategies for Parallel Processing, Parallel join, Pipelined multiway join, Physical organisation


Unit 12: Distributed Databases: Structure of Distributed Database; Trade-offs in Distributing the Database, Advantages of Data Distribution, Disadvantages of Data Distribution; Design of Distributed Databases, Data Replication, Data Fragmentation


Unit 13: Object Oriented DBMS: Next Generation Data Base System, New Database Application; Object Oriented Database Management System; Features of Object Oriented System; Advantages of Object Oriented Database Management System; Deficiencies of Relational Database Management System; Difference between Relational Database Management System and Object Oriented Database Management System, Alternative Object Oriented Database Strategies


Unit 14: Object Relational Mapping: Significance of Mapping; Mapping Basics; Mapping a Class Inheritance Tree; Mapping Object Relationships, Types of relationships, Implementation of object relationships, Implementation of relational database relationships, Relationship mappings, Mapping ordered collections, Mapping recursive relationships, Modelling with Join Tables, Open Source Object Relational Mapping Software.