Operating System

Course Code: MCA211

Course Title: Operating System (4 Credits)




Course Contents


Unit -1: Operating System – An Introduction:- Definition and functions of Operating System, Evolution of Operating Systems-Simple Batch Operating Systems, Multi-programmed Batched Operating Systems, Time- Sharing operating Systems, Personal Computer Operating Systems, Multi-processor Operating Systems, Distributed Systems, Real-Time Systems; Operating system structures-Layered approach, The kernel based approach, The virtual machine approach.


Unit - 2: Operating System Architecture: Operating System as an Extended Machine, Layered Approach, Micro-Kernels, UNIX Kernel Components, Modules, Introduction to Virtual Machines, Virtual Environment & Machine Aggregation, Implementation Techniques.


Unit - 3: Process Management: Process, Process State, Process Control Block, Process Scheduling, Operation on processes, Co-operating Processes, Threads.


Unit - 4: CPU Scheduling Algorithms: Basic Concepts of Scheduling: CPU-I/O Burst Cycle. CPU Scheduler, Pre-emptive / non pre-emptive scheduling, Dispatcher, Scheduling Criteria; Scheduling Algorithms, First come First Served Scheduling, Shortest-Job-First Scheduling, Priority Scheduling. Round-Robin Scheduling, Multilevel Queue Scheduling, Multilevel Feedback Queue Scheduling, Multiple-Processor Scheduling, Real-Time Scheduling; Evaluation of CPU Scheduling Algorithms-Deterministic Modelling, Queuing Models, Simulations, Implementation.


Unit - 5: Process Synchronization: Inter process Communication; Basic Structure, Naming: Direct Communication; Indirect Communication, Buffering; The Critical-section problem: Two Process Solution; Multiple Process Solutions; Semaphores; Monitors; Hardware Assistance.


Unit - 6: Deadlocks: System Model, Deadlock Characterization, Deadlock Handling; Deadlock Prevention, Deadlock Avoidance-Safe State, Resource-Allocation Graph Algorithm, Banker’s Algorithm; Deadlock Detection-Single Instance of a Resource, Multiple Instances of a Resource, Recovery from Deadlock.


Unit - 7: Memory Management: Logical versus Physical Address Space Swapping; Contiguous Allocation-Single partition Allocation, Multiple Partition Allocation, Fragmentation; Paging-Concept of paging, Page Table Implementation; Segmentation-Concept of Segmentation, Segmentation Hardware, External Fragmentation.


Unit - 8: Virtual Memory: Need for Virtual Memory Technique; Demand Paging; Page Replacement; Page Replacement Algorithms-FIFO Page Replacement Algorithm, Optimal Algorithm; LRU page Replacement Algorithm; Thrashing-Causes for Thrashing, Working Set Model, Page Fault Frequency.


Unit - 9: File System Interface and Implementation: Concept of a File- Attributes of a File, Operations on Files, Types of Files; Structure of File; File Access Methods-Sequential Access, Direct Access, Indexed Sequential Access; Directory Structure: Single Level Directory, Two Level Directory; Tree Structured Directories; Allocation Methods- Contiguous allocation, Linked allocation, Indexed allocation, Performance comparison; Free Space Management, Directory Implementation.


Unit - 10 Input-Output Architecture: I/O Structure, I/O Control Strategies-Program controlled I/O, Interrupt-controlled I/O, Direct memory access; The I/O Address Space.


Unit - 11: Operating Systems in Distributed Processing: Centralized and Distributed Processing, Network Operating System (NOS) Architecture, Functions of NOS, Global Operating System (GOS), Remote Procedure Call (RPC), Distributed File Management.


Unit - 12: Security and Protection: Attacks on Security, Computer Worms, Computer Virus, Security Design Principles, Authentication, Protection Mechanism, Encryption, Security in Distributed Environment.


Unit - 13: Multiprocessor Systems: Multiprocessors, Multiprocessor Classification, Multiprocessor Interconnections, Types of Multiprocessor Operating Systems (MOS), MOS Functions and Requirements, Operating System Design and Implementation Issues.


Unit - 14: Windows Operating Systems: Introduction, Windows NT Architecture, Windows 2000 Architecture, Common Functionality.