Computer Networks


Course Code: BIT302

Course Title: Computer Networks (4 Credits)




Course Contents


Unit 1 Introduction to Computer Networks: Introduction: Definition of a Computer Network; What is a Network? Components of a computer network: Use of Computer networks; Networks for companies, Networks for people, Social Issues: Classification of networks; Based on transmission technology, Based on their scale, Local area networks, Metropolitan area networks, Wide area networks, Wireless networks:


Unit 2 Network Software & Network Standardization: Introduction: Networks Software; Protocol hierarchy, Design issues for the layers, Merits and De-merits of Layered Architecture, Service Primitives: Reference models; The OSI Reference Model, The TCP/IP Reference Model, Comparison of the OSI & the TCP/IP Reference Models: Network standardization; Who's who in the telecommunication world?, Who's who in the standards world, Who's who in the Internet standards world?:


Unit 3 Data Communications: Introduction: Theoretical basis for communication; Fourier analysis, Band limited signals, Maximum data rate of a channel: Transmission impairments; Attenuation distortion, Delay distortion, Dispersion, Noise: Data transmission modes; Serial & Parallel, Simplex, Half duplex & full duplex, Synchronous & Asynchronous transmission:


Unit 4 Physical Layer: Introduction: Network topologies; Linear Bus Topology, Ring Topology, Star Topology, Hierarchical or Tree Topology, Topology Comparison, Considerations when choosing a Topology: Switching; Circuit switching, Message switching, Packet switching, Implementation of packet switching, Relationship between Packet Size and Transmission time, Comparison of switching techniques: Multiplexing; FDM – Frequency division multiplexing, WDM – Wavelength division multiplexing, TDM – Time division multiplexing:


Unit 5 Transmission Medium: Introduction: Transmission medium; guided & Unguided Transmission medium, Twisted pair, Coaxial cable, Optical fiber, Comparison of fiber optics and copper wire: Wireless transmission; Electromagnetic spectrum, Radio transmission, Microwave transmission.


Unit 6 Data Link Layer: Introduction; Goal of DLL: Design issues of DLL; Services provided to the Network layer, Framing, Error control, Flow control, Link Management, ARQ strategies: Error Detection and correction; Parity bits, Importance of flamming distance for error correction, Single bit error correction or (n, m) flamming code, Error Detection or Cyclic Redundant Code (CRC): Data Link layer protocols; Transmission control protocols, HDLC:


Unit 7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer: Introduction: The channel allocation problem; Static channels allocation, Dynamic channels allocation in LAN’s and MAN’s: Multiple access protocols; Pure ALOHA or Unslotted ALOHA Protocol, Slotted ALOHA or Impure ALOHA Protocol, CSMA Protocol, CSMA/CD Protocol, Binary exponential Algorithm, Comparison of channel access protocols: IEEE standards; Ethernets, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, IEEE 802.3 frame format:


Unit 8 Network Layer: Introduction: Design issues of Network layer; Nature of the service provided, Internal organization, Routing, Congestion control, Internetworking: Principles of Routing; Types of routing algorithms, Classes of routing  algorithms, Properties of routing algorithms, Optimality principle: Routing algorithms; Shortest path algorithm, Flooding, Distance vector routing, Hierarchical routing, Link state routing, Comparison of routing algorithms: Congestion; Factors of congestion, Comparison of flow control and congestion control, General principles of congestion control, Closed loop solution: IP protocol (IPV4):


Unit 9 Transport Layer: Introduction: Services of Transport layer; Service primitives: Connection establishment: Connection Release: Transport Protocols; TCP protocol, UDP protocol:


Unit 10 Networking Devices: Introduction; Goal of networking devices: Repeaters; Uses of Repeaters: Hubs; Classification of Hubs, Stackable Hubs, USB Hub: Switches; Switching Methods, Comparison of switching methods, Working with Hubs and Switches, Cables Connecting Hubs and Switches, Managed Hubs and Switches, Port Density: Bridges; Bridge Implementation Considerations, Types of Bridges: Routers; Dedicated Hardware versus Server-Based Routers, Advantages and Disadvantages of dedicated hardware routers, Drawbacks of Routers: Gateways; Advantages of gateways, Gateways Functionality: Other Devices; Modems, Proxy Server, Wireless router, Brouter, Wireless Access Point (WAPs).